Those factors are examined in the five major interconnected domains, namely ecosystems, water resources, food safety, health and human security, in order to facilitate decision-making in addressing the issues. The results suggest that the observed rates of climate change in the region exceed the global trends for most variables. The impact aggravates existing environmental problems, such as those caused by land use change (urbanization and agricultural intensification), pollution and decline in biodiversity. Thus far the risks were underestimated because each component was only examined independently, while in reality, they are interconnected and produce a cumulative impact together with socio-economic challenges. In order to facilitate decision-making for mitigation and adaptation options, the authors call for a pan-Mediterranean integrated risk assessment.